Saturday, May 27, 2017
Why Can't Planters Be Pastors?
For church planters, there are a number of dynamics at play when planting that highlight the imbalance in our understanding of pastor that can limit the effectiveness of a planter. Part 1 Part 2
3 Ways Online Giving Helps Your Church
Online giving does not just help church members. Churches can benefit from online giving as well. Here are three ways online giving helps your church.... Read More
Does Nature Reveal God?
Does nature reveal God? This question indicates a concern about a foundational issue to Christianity. The issue is, can God be known outside of the church or a religious environment? Read More
Our Top 9 Resources on Calling
Calling: it's the reason you do what you do. God has uniquely prepared you for his work. But some days, doubts creep in. Here's help to dig deep into your calling, to understand God's voice, to live it out and help others do the same. Read More
6 Basic Email Observations from Leading a Team
Few things are as lamented as email and staff meetings. And yet, both are very important in communicating, in ensuring execution, and in keeping work moving forward. They are, however, lamented for a reason. Poorly led meetings and poor email practices waste immense amounts of time and energy. Here are six basic email observations from leading a team.... Read More
The Real Root of Sexual Sin
The most powerful weapon against sexual impurity is humility. Patterns of sinful thought and behavior are fruits of a deeper root. If we want to stop bearing bad fruit, we must aim our primary attack against the root. And the root of sexual sin is not our sex drive; it’s pride. Read More
Renew Your Mind
Many of today’s men have made a poor choice. They’ve chosen to conform, to feed their lust with the pornographic images of the world, to speak as the world speaks, to take on a sinful lifestyle marked by pride, apathy, and self-indulgence. If you are a Christian man, you are called to something different, something better, something far more challenging and far more satisfying. You are called to godliness. You are called to renounce anything that would hinder you in your race and to embrace a life-long pursuit of knowing Jesus. Read More
The Southern Baptist Journal of Theology: Typology - Spring 2017
The complete Spring 2017 issue of The Southern Baptist Journal of Theology is now online vin PDF format. It may be read or downloaded here.
Moral Outrage in America Is Now for Everybody
Gallup finds record-high liberalism on 10 of 19 issues. Yet moderates and liberals are growing more concerned. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 1:18 PM
Friday, May 26, 2017
Last week I began a new series titled “Why I Am Not…” and in this series I am exploring some of the things I do not believe as a means to explaining what I do believe. In the last article I explained why I am not atheist and now want to explain why I am not Roman Catholic. The timing of this article is unplanned but rather appropriate. I publish today from Orlando, Florida where I am enjoying some time at Ligonier Ministries, the ministry founded many years ago by Dr. R.C. Sproul. In very important ways the answer to the question “Why am I not Roman Catholic?” is “R.C. Sproul.” But I am getting ahead of myself.
Though my parents were saved into Pentecostalism, they quickly found a home in the Presbyterian tradition and developed deep interests in both church history and Reformed theology. Each of them read extensively in these fields and eagerly taught me what they had learned. In church history they found the long saga of Rome’s battle against Protestants and pre-Protestants while in theology they found her distortion of the gospel. From my early days I was taught that Catholicism is a dangerous perversion of biblical truth and learned the traditional Protestant understanding that its pontiff is the antichrist, the great opponent of God’s people.
As I entered adulthood I felt a growing desire to examine the beliefs I had always assumed to see if I actually held to them independently from my parents. I looked for resources that could guide me and soon came across the works of R.C. Sproul which had largely been written in response to Evangelicals and Catholics Together. Sproul had determined that he would allow the Church to speak for herself through her catechism and official statements and that he would evaluate these through Scripture. He showed a deep, respectful understanding of Catholicism and built a compelling case in which he exposed her most serious problems. Books by James White complemented Sproul’s and under their guidance I came to see that Catholic doctrine really is opposed to Scripture and to the gospel. My convictions about the errors and dangers of Catholicism changed a little bit—I became far less convinced about the connection between pope and antichrist, for example—but overall were sharpened and deepened. I concluded that for a number of reasons I could never be Roman Catholic. Most prominent among them are these three.... Read More
Tim Challies reposted this article on his website and I am reposting it on Anglicans Ablaze. Challies draws attention to three fundamental defects of Roman Catholicism—its denial of the gospel, its exclusive claim to be the Church, and its idolatrous worship. A fourth fundamental defect of Roman Catholicism , which Challies does not address in his article, is that, while it claims to recognize the authority of the Bible, it elevates its own particular consensus and tradition above Scripture, a fundamental defect that it shares with Eastern Orthodoxy and the various other forms of unreformed Catholicism.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 1:27 PM
Many of us have a weird uncle we invite to family gatherings because we’re supposed to. We may not know him very well but he’s family, so we don’t have much choice. In some ways this is how I’ve treated the Holy Spirit. I knew that I “got Him,” that He “came with the family” when Christ saved me, but I didn’t understand my relationship with him.
In case you’re beginning to wonder if I’m calling the Holy Spirit a weird uncle, I’m not. I realize He is who joins me to the family as He continually makes me into the image of Christ and pleads with intercession too deep for words. Yet, I had never really gotten to know Him very well—until I started ministering in Maine.
Since moving here, at least three major things have changed in my life. I now have two sets of tires (for snow), the pine-cone is my state flower (not a joke), and I have gotten to know the third person of the Trinity in a more tangible, intimate way.
Nothing in ministry has created sheer desperation for the power of God through the Holy Spirit as moving to Maine did seven years ago. Here are the three specific things that pushed me to understand the Holy Spirit. Read More
They appeal to certain church planters and in certain contexts.
Discerning House Churches
The house church discussion is always an interesting one. People can be very passionate about house, simple, and organic churches, and that can limit some important discussions.
Some say, “Of course, that’s the best way—that’s what is in the New Testament!” And, actually, they are right about the New Testament. However, it can be tricky to evaluate something that you are convinced is the only right way.
On the other hand, house churches are far from the norm in the English-speaking Western world. And, as such, unfamiliar for many. To be honest, many readers will have had experiences with house church people that is less than positive. (I hear often from pastors about disgruntled or theologically-odd people ending up in house churches.)
The fact is, there are healthy and unhealthy expressions of house / simple / organic churches. There are good expressions, and I’ve written lots on that, but I’ve run into plenty of the bad ones. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 12:41 PM
Early Christians before Constantine were highly persecuted for being too exclusive, narrow, and strange, and yet at the same time they were fast growing, especially in the urban centers. (See, for example, Alan Kreider’s chapter “The Improbable Growth of the Church” in The Patient Ferment of the Early Church.)
This has been called an effective “missionary encounter” with Roman society. There was both offense and attraction, confrontation and persuasion. Christianity didn’t adapt to culture in order to gain more adherents, but neither did it remain a small, withdrawn band. Christianity confronted and critiqued the culture, and believers suffered for it—yet the faith also convinced many, attracting growing numbers of converts daily. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 11:54 AM
Thursday, May 25, 2017
Your church has the world’s greatest treasure. Don’t hide it behind layers of misdirection and insider lingo, daring people to find it.
Several years ago I had the privilege of being in a great church service on a trip away from home.
The worship was dynamic, the people were friendly, the message was biblical and engaging, the sense of the presence of God was genuine.
As I drove away, I thought, “What a great church! I feel filled-up and ready to take on the week! It’s a shame they won’t have any impact on their community – not if they keep doing things the way they're currently doing them."
Why would I think that if the church was as great as I described?
Because everything the church did was inward-looking not outward-reaching. Read More
This article brought to mind an Episcopal church with which I was acquainted in the 1980s and 1990s. The church was located at the other end of the county in which I lived. The area was enjoying explosive growth as was the area where I lived. The two Episcopal churches in my area were growing with the area. Both churches would eventually go to three services on Sunday mornings. Despite the growth of the area in which it was located, the Episcopal church at the other end of the county was not growing with the area. Other area churches were. A number of successful church plants were also launched in the area.
When the new bishop announced a new church planting initiative for the diocese, the church’s leaders would plead with him not to authorize a new church plant in the area, fearing that it would attract not only newcomers to the area but also its own parishioners.
I attended a meeting at the church on one occasion and from the difficulty that I had in finding the church gained some insight into why it was not benefiting from the area’s growth. The church was located on a side street that itself was not easy to find. There were no signs on any of the streets leading to the church providing directions to the church. The only church sign was a small one in the front of the building itself.
Except for one small entry in the telephone directory the church I would learn did not advertise its presence in the community. The attitude of the church’s leaders was if someone new to the area wished to attend an Episcopal church in the community, they could look in the telephone directory. They did not see any need to run ads in the newspaper drawing attention to the church’s presence or put up signs directing people to the church. They did not see the need to build bridges to the community.
A number of the church’s leaders had originally been members of a local Unitarian Universalist church which had suffered from declining attendance, forcing it to cut back on the frequency of its gatherings and eventually to close its doors. They placed no value on being outward-reaching. My own church would benefit from their attitude of indifference. It would attract newcomers to their end of the county as well as to my own.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 4:34 PM
Is it possible that your church isn’t a perfect fit for everyone?
Everyone is welcome, but maybe another church might meet their particular needs better. That’s not an easily embraced thought.
Can you say “no” to someone even if it potentially results in them leaving your church?
Learning to balance the natural tension of loving and caring for people, but not allowing someone to leverage their personal agenda, or even hijack the purpose of your church, is not easy.
This is a tough issue and requires artful leadership. As shepherds we hate to have even one person leave, but sometimes it’s OK.
The church is not designed to please everyone. The kind of preaching or style of worship can’t make everyone happy. Your approach to student ministry won’t connect with every parent. Heck, your choice of coffee can make some people mad!
The church does not exist to deliver all the programming its attendees can dream up. If we did everything we’ve been asked to do, we’d have dozens of programs from baseball leagues to classes in CPR.
You can’t preach every sermon your congregation thinks you should preach. Sometimes you just need to say no.
It’s all good and worthy stuff, but the church not only shouldn’t do all of it, it also can’t. No one church can do everything. That is simply impossible. So what each church does must be carefully, strategically and prayerfully thought through.
Many of the things that your attendees request already exist somewhere in your community. Encourage your congregation to engage the community, and take Jesus with them!
Here are three principles to help you navigate these sensitive matters. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:46 PM
One of the greatest decisions of your life will be centered upon what church you should join. This will be where you receive the teaching of God’s Word, grow in the knowledge of truth, are blessed through the ordinary means of grace, and where your entire family will engage in worship, discipleship, and missions. This is no small decision. Often I run across people at conferences or through e-mail who stop attending church because they can’t find the perfect church. What if you don’t have the perfect church in your community—what should you do? Read More
The Weight of the Church
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:41 PM
There may be no truth in the Bible more deeply loved and greatly cherished than the subject of the new birth. Here is the grace-centered message of a new beginning for those whose lives have been ruined by sin. Here is the life-changing truth that sinful men can be made new. When the new birth is caused by God, old things pass away—old practices, old cravings, old habits, old addictions, and old associations. Behold, new things come—new desires, new pursuits, and new passions. An entirely new life begins. Nothing could be more positive than this. It is no wonder that the truth of the new birth is so beloved. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:35 PM
There is in each of us a dangerous temptation toward hypocrisy, to be one thing but to pretend to be another. There are many within the church who are hypocrites, people who claim to be Christians but who are, in fact, unbelievers attempting to convince others (and perhaps themselves) that they are followers of Jesus Christ. They are people who do not practice true virtue but who instead offer counterfeit versions of it. Jude compares them to clouds without water in that they seem to be full of the Spirit but are actually devoid of true goodness.
Here are five solemn warnings to those who only pretend to be godly.... Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:23 PM
It is becoming increasingly important for the church to talk about reaching the dechurched in their communities. This sounds like a great idea in theory, but it presents a real challenge when churches perpetuate an “us-versus-them” mentality in our language and disposition.
By “dechurched” I mean people who were at some point either briefly or for a long time involved in a local church, but have not been active for several years.
To reach the dechurched, we have to understand them. And, as I see the dechurched, there are two main groups—the open and closed. How we seek to reach a dechurched person should be determined, in part, by which group they’re from. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:15 PM
Mobilizing People Out of the Pews
Ministry where a few people are doing the work and the church is expecting them to keep doing it can be terribly frustrating. How do we mobilize people in the rows of our congregations to action, to ministry, to mission? Here are three things that need to happen to mobilize your people. Read More
Do Not Plant or Pastor a Church in Your Head
...there’s a danger of adopting a model of church without giving proper consideration to the people and culture God is sending you to plant or pastor. In short, we need a vision for the people before we develop a vision for a particular model of church. Read More
The link to "Exete Your Culture" unfortunately no longer connects to that resource. As I come across articles on exeting the culture and subcultures of a community and/or region, I will post them on Anglicans Ablaze. Knowing the culture and speaking its "language" is not only critical to the successful planting of a new church but also to the effective revitalization of an existing church.Shame, Guilt, and Fear: What 1,000 Americans Avoid Most
Churches may be emphasizing the wrong selling point of the gospel, suggests LifeWay. Read More
God’s Sovereignty and Glory
God is sovereign in creation, providence, redemption, and judgment. That is a central assertion of Christian belief and especially in Reformed theology. God is King and Lord of all. To put this another way: nothing happens without God’s willing it to happen, willing it to happen before it happens, and willing it to happen in the way that it happens. Put this way, it seems to say something that is expressly Reformed in doctrine. But at its heart, it is saying nothing different from the assertion of the Nicene Creed: “I believe in God, the Father Almighty.” To say that God is sovereign is to express His almightiness in every area. Read More
Pastoral Leadership Capital
Parts 1 and 2 of Marty Duren's article series on pastoral leadership capital. Part 1 Part 2
8 Reasons Every Church Leader Needs Accountability
As I began ministry decades ago, few people were talking about accountability. More are using that language today, but we still have much room for growth. Here’s why every church leader needs accountability.... Read More
Try This: Summer Story Time for Kids
Host a half-hour story time for children one morning a week during the summer. Read More
Six Details to Include in Your Church Staff Bios
Staff bios help guests—and church members—relate better to those who are charged with the spiritual care of a congregation. While they don’t have to be exhaustive, there are a few items to consider including in each church staff member’s bio. Read More
Running to the Pantry of Good Works
Are we praying, reading the Bible, and doing what is right to earn or keep God's favor? Read More
6 Ways to Avoid Delayed Adulthood
Here are six basic steps to help the saplings of the next generation add rings as they reach for the light. Read More
Six Ways Men Can Support Women’s Discipleship
Male clergy and laity who want to enable women’s ministry often don't know how to get involved or what to do.Read More
Preaching the Gospel with Words: Why There’s No Other Way
We marginalize evangelism when we say the good news is social action. Read More
Ed Stetzer tackles the difficult issues of contextualization. Part 1 Part 2 Part 3
How Government Support Saved Me
Signing up for food stamps changed my view of poverty in America. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:10 PM
Wednesday, May 24, 2017
Once a week I begin my theology class with a time of Q&A. For me, this is just applied theology, a chance to show how the Bible relates to what’s going on in the lives and minds of my students. The most frequently asked questions almost all relate to God’s providence.
My answers on this topic probably aren’t always satisfactory for my students. It’s a mystery, I tell them. There are known knowns (to borrow some political jargon), unknown unknowns, and seemingly (to introduce a category of my own) unkownable unknowns.
In short, God is sovereign. We aren’t. God is omniscient (He knows everything). We don’t. I tell my students that if they want proof of their intellectual limitations to simply look to their most recent quiz grades. That usually evokes more frustration than laughter.
I’ve reflected on this regularly, God’s providence that is, as I think most Christians likely do. It is central to so much of our lives. Why pray if God knows everything? Why do anything if God is sovereign? I know, I know. Some of you are right now judging me for not more strongly affirming a reformed understanding of sovereignty. To be clear, I do affirm God’s sovereignty. That doesn’t mean I understand it. I don’t pretend to.
It’s the understanding part, the dogmatic insistence that there is no mystery, the smug raise of the eyebrows, the canned response, the regurgitated theological truisms, that get under my skin. I’m a little skeptical of anyone who acts like they have God’s providence all figured out. Trust me, I believe it. God’s sovereignty is the pillow on which I lay my head, to borrow a line from Spurgeon. That doesn’t mean it’s not a mystery.
To turn from a gloriously mysterious theological topic to a single application in real life, how does this play out in our sense of location? The Apostle Paul talked about this in his sermon in Athens on Mars Hill. He said that God has “determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place, that they should seek God, and perhaps feel their way toward him and find him” (Acts 17:26-27). In sum, God has chosen when and where people will live. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:59 PM
Lessons from a Small Town Pastor
A pastor or church planter in a small town who wants to make a long-lasting impact on the community will need a strategy to develop good leaders. What should you be looking for? Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:53 PM
In 2004 the Church of England began its first internet church: i-church.org. It still exists today, with a pastor and members who interact with one another online. But is it really a church? Many churches in America are made up of multiple campuses, but from a biblical point of view, is it possible for one church to be located in numerous places?
These questions are more than theological teasers; they have real significance for God’s people. Darren Carlson, president of Training Leaders International, recently observed, “The greatest problem in missions right now is disagreement over what constitutes a local church.” That’s not a small statement. Clearly we need to think with care about what a church is. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:46 PM
According to a Pew Research study, millennials have surpassed baby boomers as the nation’s largest living generation. Millennials, whom we now define as those ages 20 to 36, number over 75.4 million, surpassing the 74.9 million Baby Boomers (ages 53 to 71). Businesses such as Goldman Sachs are studying this trend, recognizing they will “change the ways we buy and sell, forcing companies to examine how they do business for decades to come.”
I, too, have been thinking about this new culture of millennials as they increasingly become the dominant culture in many of our churches. What are the critical issues we must address to make mature disciples, build sustainable communities and reach the world effectively? The following are my top five. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:43 PM
The Internet has certainly brought us incredible ways to do commerce, to get information, and to communicate.
But it has an ugly and evil side to it as well.
It allows cowardly critics to hide behind a keyboard and cut people to the core through blogs, social media, and email.
So how do we respond when we get a hurtful email? The pastor who received that cruel, cowardly, and vitriolic email asked me that question. Here is how I responded.... Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:36 PM
Musician David Byrne recently advanced an interesting theory about humanity and technology. The overarching agenda of technology, he believes, is intended to eliminate human interaction. The displacement of human beings by modern technology has become so obvious and so widespread that he has been forced to conclude it is more than an unintentional byproduct of increased automation. “What much of this technology seems to have in common is that it removes the need to deal with humans directly. The tech doesn’t claim or acknowledge this as its primary goal, but it seems to often be the consequence. I’m sort of thinking maybe it is the primary goal.” Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:32 PM
Tuesday, May 23, 2017
“Awake thou that sleepest and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.” (Eph. 5:14)
A pastor I know has a problem. It’s not unlike that experienced by a large group of his peers, I imagine.
He has deacons who are undisciplined, church members who do not take care of the hurting in their midst, and in general, a congregation of unmotivated people. When he preaches evangelism or discipleship or ministry in their community, the way they sit and stare makes him wonder if the language he’s using might be a foreign tongue to them.
Sound like your church? Because it sure sounds like some I’ve pastored and a whole lot I’ve known.
The pastor of that unresponsive bunch asked for my advice. Had I ever written anything on how to revive a comatose church? Does our website have any help for him?
I asked him to give me a day or two to reflect on the subject and seek the Lord’s guidance. More and more, I kept thinking: This is an uphill task, wakening a sleeping church. If it were easy, every pastor would do it and no church would be stagnant or declining.
[Nine changes dying churches must make immediately.]
Here are my observations, for what they’re worth, on how to transform a collection of stagnant do-nothings into a thriving, caring, loving church of the Lord Jesus Christ. And since every church is both similar and different, we will use a lot of generalities and broad-sweeping statements. Pastors should take anything that fits their situation and skip past the rest. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 4:25 PM
Celebrations in 2017 of the five-hundredth anniversary of the Reformation will return again and again to the subject of justification by faith alone, one of the Reformation’s most critical rediscoveries. That subject is so important that in one sense we cannot study it enough. On the other hand, part of me wonders why we seem to have so much trouble understanding and holding on to a doctrine so vital. Is the doctrine so complicated that we cannot remember it? Is the Bible’s teaching so obscure that we cannot penetrate it? Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 4:19 PM
While the Catholic Church and most Protestants describe the Roman Catholic Church as Trinitarian, it is a very different Trinity. As suggested in my previous article, the way the Roman Catholic Church presents Jesus every day in the Eucharist so distorts him that he is unrecognisably human, and indeed unrecognisably divine. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 4:13 PM
Evangelism is a central task of the Great Commission (Matt. 28:18-20), but many churches don’t do well at this task. In fact, many pastors don’t evangelize much, either. As a pastor, I know that struggle. Here are some reasons why we don’t evangelize, and then some reasons why we must kick start our evangelistic efforts. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 4:09 PM
Monday, May 22, 2017
About 20 years ago, a church member was considered active in the church if he or she attended three times a week.
Today, a church member is considered active in the church if he or she attends three times a month.
Something is wrong with this picture. For 2,000 years, the local church, as messy as it is, has been God’s place for believers to gather, worship, minister, and be accountable to one another.
And every time I write something about church membership and attendance, I inevitably hear cries of “legalism” or “the church is not a building” or “the church is a messed up institution.”
But the local church, the messy local church, is what God has used as His primary instrument to make disciples. But commitment is waning among many church members.
Why? Read More
In a small church, it doesn’t take long for everyone who’s interested in a specific discipleship program to finish it.
The days of finding or creating a discipleship program, then using it for years, is over. Especially in a small church.
Our church created and implemented a great a discipleship class last year. In our church of 180 (average Sunday attendance) more than 60 adults took the class and got a lot out of it.
It’s been a huge win for us.
But I’m not going to tell you what our idea was. For two reasons.
First, because it was very specific to our church, our needs, our teaching style and our current circumstance, so the likelihood of it working elsewhere is slim.
Second, because, even though it worked really well, we’re not going to do it again.
What worked last year won’t work next year. Especially if you’re producing growing disciples, not just frequent attenders. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 12:43 PM
Saturday, May 20, 2017
Luther, his Friends and his Legacy
Tours to Reformation sites last year and the year before have stimulated a reawakening interest in Luther. Read More
Lutherans Celebrate Reformation Where Germany Committed Genocide
Lutheran World Federation assembles in Namibia for 500th anniversary of Martin Luther. Read More
Why We Struggle to Make Giving a Priority
The idea of making generosity the priority of our finances is a struggle for many. Here are a few reasons why.... Read More
5 Warning Signs That Laziness Is Creeping into Your Leadership
Like all sin, laziness can slowly creep into our lives and leadership. If we fail to address the temptation to move toward laziness, we become unfaithful in our leadership. Here are five warning signs. Read More
7 Ways Video Can Save Your Pastor Time
Here are a few ways you can help your pastor save time by using video to offload tasks from him and free him to do what he does best: shepherd, lead, and pastor. Read More
Public Discourse in the Age of Social Media
What is social media doing to our ability to communicate with kindness, clarity and depth? Read More
5 Surprising Reasons Why Reaching Teens Should Be a Big Part of Your Church's Outreach Strategy
Start a fire in the youth room and the rest of the church will be set ablaze for Jesus. Reach the teenagers of a city for Christ and the adults will soon be reached as well. That's one of the surprising reasons why focusing on reaching teenagers for Jesus is super strategic. Read More
Dealing with Objections When you Share the Gospel [Video]
Alvin Reid offers some principals for dealing with objections when we witness. Watch Now
The Theology Beneath the Trump-Comey Conflict
How the former FBI director’s interest in Reinhold Niebuhr shaped his approach to political power. Read More
Five Things You Should Know About Reinhold Niebuhr
From Carter to Comey, the legacy of “Washington’s Favorite Theologian” endures. Read More
ICE Deports Christian Who Fled Persecution Back to Indonesia
Man who sought asylum in New Jersey church caught up in 100-day surge in non-criminal arrests. Read More
ORP Think and the U.S. Criminal Justice System
NORP = Normal Ordinary Responsible Person. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:27 PM
Friday, May 19, 2017
Tony’s Seven Phases Of The Church’s Lifecycle
Tony Morgan has helped over 200 churches in the last 8 years, and has observed that most churches go through predictable patterns in its lifecycle.
Combining the insights of Les McKeown (Episode 112) and others, Tony has identified 7 specific stages in the life-cycle of a church and shows you where you need to be, and how to get there.
So…where’s your church..strategic growth, maintenance…life support? Listen Now
Tony Morgan's UC bell curve is similar to the Sigmoid Curve that Aubrey Mulphurs uses to describe the life cycle of a church in Chapter 2, "Understanding Organizational Development," of Advanced Strategic Planning: A New Model for Church and Ministry Leaders (Baker Books: 1999). In this chapter Mulphurs explains that the key to continued growth and renewal is to start new first-curve churches and to start a new second curve in the existing church before it plateaus. A third context for starting a new sigmoid curve is the revitalization of plateued or dying churches. Mulphur goes on to warn that if a dying church is to survive at all, it must start a new S-curve as soon as possible. Mulphur then gives a brief overview of the strategic planning process which is an essential step in the starting of a first or second sigmoid curve. The rest of the book is devoted to fleshing out this process.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 8:36 AM
10 Keys to a Spiritual Breakthrough
The Bible has powerful instructions on encountering God and experiencing spiritual breakthroughs in your life. Read More
Why You Will Join the Wrong Church
Many Christians’ broken relationships with their churches resemble patterns of the divorce culture and its attendant assumptions about authority, love, and compatibility. Read More
What Happens to Our Pets When They Die?
Death is one of life’s saddest and most certain realities. Whether it be a pet or a fellow image-bearer, few things sober us like death. A cold, stiff body that lacks the life it once supported is a heavy reminder that something is tragically wrong with our world. Read More
Pet funerals provide an opportunity to minister to an individual or family grieving over the loss of a much-loved pet and to form relationships with the unchurched.Why God Demands Worship
I have been doing university missions off and on for about thirty-five years. About a dozen years ago, I started stumbling across a question from university undergraduates that I never received when I was a young man. Read More
Dealing with Public Distractions to Worship, Featuring Mike Harland - Rainer on Leadership #329 [Podcast]
Distractions are a real part of worship services. Mike Harland joins Thom Rainer and Jonathan Howe today to talk about how to eliminate—or at least minimize—distractions in your worship service. Listen Now
10 Friday Questions to Ask in Preparation for Sunday
One reason many weekend worship services are ineffective is that we spend too little time preparing ourselves for worship. Take some time to answer these questions today, and use them to help you get ready to gather with your congregation this weekend.... Read More
The Unique Role of the Church in Solidifying a Child’s Faith
I can see how someone who has not experienced the hope of the gospel might feel teaching Christian faith to children is imposing, maybe even harmful, but if you believe Jesus saves you, wouldn’t it be wrong to not share that with your children? Read More
Why Vacation Bible School? Because the Gospel Matters
Why do I care about Vacation Bible School? Kids and their parents need to hear the gospel and about thirty-percent of the families who attend our VBS are unchurched. Read More
New: Consider These 5 Things Before Your Church Plans a Short-Term Mission Trip
Short-term mission trips are a strategic way to involve church members directly in making disciples of all nations. Trips have great potential to help churches cultivate meaningful partnerships with career missionaries and expand opportunities for every member of a church to participate in the Great Commission. In order to help your church accomplish these goals through short-term missions, here are five things to consider before you plan a trip. Read More
New: 7 Secrets to Leading a Successful Men’s Event
As you seek to mobilize your men—as well as reach unchurched men and boys in your community—here are seven ideas that I hope will help you. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 8:13 AM
Thursday, May 18, 2017
The Roman formula is for the faithful to receive the bread and for the priest to drink the wine.
I sat in the church where Martin Luther preached some 2,000 sermons, imagining the impact his short life had on the world. Sitting in a pew, taking in the sights of The Town Church (Stadtkirche) of Wittenberg, I could almost hear his thunderous insights mixed with stories and applications fitting for his audience in this German town in the early 1500s.
There are many symbols and stories that circulate from that historic and church-erupting time. You may have a point that crystalizes the importance of the Reformation. I have many, but a painting in this Town Church where Luther preached caught my eye and became a riveting symbol summing up for me the rediscovery of the gospel, the great gift of the Reformation. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:12 PM
Most of our churches would be in trouble were it not for volunteers who serve faithfully every week. “Volunteer” is probably not the best word, since legitimate church membership assumes a willingness to serve – but I think we still should recognize those who serve well. Here are some ways to do that.... Read More
Fostering Volunteer Pride: TrueNorth Church in South Carolina
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:07 PM
No worship leader ever stops making mistakes. From the most seasoned and experienced worship leaders, to the newest and greenest, mistakes are inevitable, humbling, and part of the process of maturing. We’re imperfect people, working alongside other imperfect people, playing musical instruments and singing songs imperfectly, with a congregation of imperfect men and women trying to sing along.
So our goal is not to become flawless worship leaders who never make mistakes. Our goal is simply to keep being humbled by our awareness of our imperfection, and to keep growing, so we can more effectively point our congregations to Jesus in the power of the Spirit, not the power of our own professionalism.
To that end, here are eight of the most common worship leading mistakes that I’ve observed in my own ministry, and through friendships and experiences with lots of other worship leaders too.... Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:58 PM
A good church website answers questions for guests and members alike. While not every question and appropriate answer can be foreseen, an Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) page on your church’s website can be immensely helpful.
However, churches often don’t think through what answers or questions they place on the FAQ page—if they even have one. I would encourage your church to have an FAQ page on your site and to include the answers to these eight questions.... Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:49 PM
Tomorrow I will be joining Midwestern Seminary‘s Academic Provost Dr. Jason Duesing and Associate Professor of Christian Theology Dr. Owen Strachan in leading a group of students on a study tour of New England. I am really excited to return to my second home, a place where I spent 6 years in pastoral ministry in the least-churched state in the nation (Vermont), both to revisit some familiar sites and newly explore some historical landmarks. I am convinced that we need more gospel ministry in the Northeast, and in New England in particular; in fact, I believe the need is urgent for replanting, revitalizing, and the planting of new evangelical works. In terms of mission at home, I think the old grounds of New England are the new missional frontier.
I had never even visited New England before I began the interview process for the church in rural Vermont that I had the privilege of shepherding. As a native Texan who spent more than a decade in Tennessee, I have the blue blood of the Bible Belt coursing through my veins. But in 2008, as the pastor a young church plant in Nashville, God began to shift my attention from the older brothers of my homeland to the prodigals of (what I would consider) the wilderness.
And over the last several years I have been privileged to connect with others who are receiving a heart for the now least-reached portion of the United States, and I believe more and more are receiving the call, looking to “liberal,” “pagan,” “dead and dry” New England with missionary fervor. But the need is great and the workers are still few. As I keep an eye on the momentum of church planting initiatives in the U.S., I am grateful to see so many willing hearts and strong hands engaging neighbors with the gospel, but I am disheartened to see over and over again this needy post-Christian field constantly overlooked by so many would-be missional planters. Could the neglect of this emerging mission field not be from the lack of God’s call, but the lack of the called’s interest?
If you are a future church planter or have designs on joining a missional plant, here are some reasons I hope you will consider looking to and praying for a vision of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, or Vermont, the six states that comprise New England.... Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:45 PM
I remember 9th grade science class very clearly. That’s saying something, because I don’t remember most of the classes I took as a teenager. I can’t tell you too much about what we covered, because in 9th grade I didn’t exactly have “science” at the top of my priority list.
The reason I remember science class is we dissected a pig. During the part of the year that we were dissecting pigs, we looked forward to our biology class every day. I remember the smell of it, I remember seeing different organs … at this point, biology was no longer just book knowledge—it was real!
I was reminded of this not too long ago when I was thinking about church, and I made a connection that’s helped me remember how people learn. It’s a simple formula that goes like this: Experience > Explanation. Experience is greater than explanation, every day of the week. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:35 PM
Wednesday, May 17, 2017
In this brief clip from Ligonier Ministries 2017 National Conference, Leonardo De Chirico explains one of the main challenges coming from present day Roman Catholicism.
We have two main challenges coming from present-day Roman Catholicism: One is the battle over words. Roman Catholicism in its post Vatican II time has tried to capture basic Evangelical Protestant language, trying to redefine it still using the same words, still using the same sounds but significantly redefining its meaning. Watch Now
Roman Catholicism Today
This redefinition of Evangelical Protestant language and evangelicalism itself is not only occurring in the Roman Catholic Church but also in the Anglican Church in North America. The culprits? The various groups of Catholic Revivalists in the ACNA. They include the followers of the late Robert Webber and the Ancient Evangelical Future Conference as well as the traditionalist Anglo-Catholics.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:58 PM
If millions of Americans still lived in rural areas, surely God cared about them too.
When I thought and prayed about my future, the idea of church planting always came up. I knew of towns close to where I grew up that seemed desperate for a new church plant. But where were the models of inspiring rural and small town church planters?
It was during the three years I commuted from my rural town to a large urban seminary nearly two hours away that the absence of any significant or sustained efforts to plant churches in rural areas really hit me. None of the church planting models I saw during my seminary years—whether at school or on television, the internet, or in popular Christian literature—seemed to care much at all for the rural and small town folks who peopled my childhood memories and made up the vast majority of my friends and relatives.
Church planting was exciting, but it seemed the domain of urban and suburban hipsters.
But as the years went on and I transitioned from seminary to a Ph.D. program in Religious Studies, I couldn’t shake the feeling that, as important as urban and suburban church planting were, there had to be more to the picture. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:37 PM
We call it the death spiral.
I know. It’s not a pleasant term. I can understand if it causes you to cringe.
By the time I am contacted about a serious problem in a church, it is often too late. The problems are deeply rooted, but the remaining members have been blind to them, or they chose to ignore them.
There are eight clear signs evident in many churches on the precipice of closing. If a church has four or more of these signs present, it is likely in deep trouble. Indeed, it could be closing sooner than almost anyone in the church would anticipate. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:31 PM
Reaching Millenials can be very challenging since Millenials are not a homogenous generation. While Alistair Begg and Darrell L. Bock tackle but do not satisfactorily address the division between churched Millenials and unchurched or post-churched Millenials, they do raise some important questions.Watch Now
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:18 PM
Underneath the surface of most of our convention’s arguments and debates is the fact that we are a single denomination with overlapping cultures. Yes, there are debates over doctrine. Yes, there is contention over methodology. But in my view, most often the differences are cultural, which is why they are so difficult to resolve.
Consider the SBC as a river. Multiple streams have flowed into this river—streams of people with various views on any number of beliefs and practices. Just as streams flow into a river, sometimes they also flow out, which means they can carve out paths that lead to divergence over doctrines and methods. Today, different cultural streams in the SBC have led to rifts among pastors and institutions, and in several places, the rifts have become gulfs. In a few cases, the gulfs have grown so wide that the cultural breach now threatens our cooperative work.
I do not believe we should minimize the issues by denying that the gulfs are wide, or by dismissing the concerns of one side or the other, or by waving the banner of cooperation as if we can magically make the divergence disappear. When a denominational river begins to diverge into separate streams, we cannot merely focus on the doctrinal and methodological rocks and say, “Cooperate!” We have to work to ensure that the water from upstream, even if it takes in water from more than one stream, will flow in the same direction, that the combined stream is strong enough to avoid diverging when it runs into the rocks of difference. This work includes being aware of and attuned to cultural distinctions, while focusing on how to keep those cultures together.
For weeks, I’ve wrestled with different terms in order to best describe the cultures in the SBC. In my conversations with pastors and leaders, I’ve shot down term after term for being too negative, too confusing, or too problematic. In the end, I’ve settled on these two descriptors—“cosmopolitan” and “conventional”—because they seemed to capture something of each culture and, I think, they contain the least amount of baggage. They’re not perfect, but I hope they’re helpful. Read More
The Southern Baptist Convention is not the only denomination with more than one culture. The narrative that is often used to describe the Anglican Church in North America as being formed from three disparate streams that flow together as a single unified river is misleading and inaccurate. Trevin Wax's description of the SBC would also describe the ACNA.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 3:05 PM
As peace is a truth widely loved, wrath is a truth widely loathed. Many in the history of the church has been embarrassed by God’s wrath and have wanted to revise this biblical truth.
Yet, this theme of the wrath (or anger) of God toward sin and sinners is clearly and widely taught in the Bible. This truth is so interwoven with the hope of our peace with one another and with God that if we lose our grasp on the one, we lose our hope of the other. Read More
Rightly Regarding Our Sin
3 Ways We Hate Sin in Others More Than in Ourselves
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:51 PM
“It is well and good for the preacher to base his sermon on the Bible, but he better get to something relevant pretty quickly, or we start mentally to check out.” That stunningly clear sentence reflects one of the most amazing, tragic, and lamentable characteristics of contemporary Christianity: an impatience with the Word of God.
The sentence above comes from Mark Galli, senior managing editor of Christianity Today in an essay entitled, “Yawning at the Word.” In just a few hundred words, he captures the tragedy of a church increasingly impatient with and resistant to the reading and preaching of the Bible. We may wince when we read him relate his recent experiences, but we also recognize the ring of truth.
Galli was told to cut down on the biblical references in his sermon. “You’ll lose people,” the staff member warned. In a Bible study session on creation, the teacher was requested to come back the next Sunday prepared to take questions at the expense of reading the relevant scriptural texts on the doctrine. Cutting down on the number of Bible verses “would save time and, it was strongly implied, would better hold people’s interest.”
As Galli reflected, “Anyone who’s been in the preaching and teaching business knows these are not isolated examples but represent the larger reality.”
Indeed, in many churches there is very little reading of the Bible in worship, and sermons are marked by attention to the congregation’s concerns, not by an adequate attention to the biblical text. The exposition of the Bible has given way to the concerns, real or perceived, of the listeners. The authority of the Bible is swallowed up in the imposed authority of congregational concerns. Read More
Mark Galli, formerly with the Episcopal Church, is now with the Anglican Church in North America. Galli's original article was posted in November 2009, five months after the formal establishment of the ACNA. To what context was Galli was referring in his article--the Episcopal Church or the Common Cause Partnership, the network of churches from which the ACNA was formed, Mohler does not say. While it might be tempting to conclude that the situation has improved since he moved to the ACNA, we really do not not know that to be the case.
For Anglicans giving a central place to the Holy Scriptures in our worship services not only entails the public reading of the Scriptures and the preaching of expository sermons but also the use of translations of the Bible that are understandable to the congregation and the use of a liturgy that employs not just biblical language but embodies biblical teaching. Biblical language can be misused to teach ideas that are not consistent with what the Bible teaches. This has been particularly a problem in the Anglican Church.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:41 PM
A well-planned worship service is a tremendous blessing to those who participate in it. A well-planned service is not necessarily one in which the projector never flickers and the microphones never buzz, or one in which the transitions are smooth and the sermon doesn’t go long. Rather, a well-planned service is one whose elements have been carefully planned to fulfill God’s purposes for the public gatherings of his church.
How, then, do we plan our services? What elements should a service have? There are many ways to answer the question, but at minimum, the service needs to have singing, praying, Scripture-reading, and preaching. On a regular basis, if not every week, it should also have the Lord’s Supper. Each of these elements is demanded or displayed in the New Testament.
But I want to look at it from another angle that I believe can be helpful in planning our services. It’s unfortunate but realistic to assume that many people come to church on Sunday having given little thought to their faith the previous week. Many people worship on Sunday, then get busy living their lives and neglect the disciplines of the Christian life. They mean to pray, but don’t discipline themselves to actually pray; they intend to read the Bible, but allow laziness or the tyranny of the urgent to keep them away. Then a new Sunday approaches and they come to church feeling weak and needy and probably a little bit guilty.
Such people are genuine believers, but immature ones or ones who are going through those tough periods of spiritual stagnation. Perhaps they are in a difficult time in life or are deeply grieving. And in their apathy or their torment they ease off in their pursuit of the Lord, they falter in their Christian walk.
How can we best serve these people? We can best serve them by giving them the whole Christian life on a Sunday morning. We can give them the whole Christian life in miniature. Read More
This is particularly true for small-membership churches in which Sunday morning is typically the only time that the congregation gathers together for worship, instruction, prayer, the sacraments, and fellowship.
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:17 PM
Ever since I became a Christian at the ripe old age of 18 I’ve been trying to share the gospel with my parents. Not surprisingly, they weren’t receptive to my early methods, driven as they were by excessively youthful enthusiasm. My decision to give up all for gospel preaching in my late twenties only increased their hardness towards that message. Things have improved over the years, perhaps as they saw my maturing, and my steadfastness of faith, but it’s only now as I seek to care for them in their advancing years, that I may be winning a hearing.
It’s been a hard mission field. If a prophet is without honour in his home-town, how much more in his home? Jesus’ words in Matthew 10:22 certainly stacked the odds against us, it’s hard to be heard while being hated. But the Bible says that ‘hated and without honour’ is the lot for those who follow in Jesus’ steps. Yet still, the outcome of faithful living can be others’ salvation. The example of wives winning their unbelieving husbands to Christ in 1 Peter 3:1-2 certainly gives us hope.
Evangelism among family can be a long process, but the passage of time is also surprisingly swift. One moment you’re the youth of the family clashing spiritedly with your ‘misguided’ parents who are despairing over their ‘misguided’ teenager. The next moment, as the ageing process begins to overtake them, you find yourself with the maturity to see their needs and meet them. The Bible tells us to honour our parents. As children we do it by obeying them, as young adults by the good life choices we make, and in their old age it’s by caring for them. It is a privilege to do so. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 2:07 PM
Tuesday, May 16, 2017
Evangelism isn’t what it used to be and is uncertain of what it should be.
I get it. Culture is changing rapidly and radically. The methods we have used successfully for decades have become ineffective, even counter-productive. Heaven? Spiritual laws? Bible verses? These no longer spark spiritual interest. Evangelism training isn’t what it used to be, but in many cases is uncertain of what it should be.
This frustration is actually good news. Good because it is causing us to reimagine how we think about evangelism (see my earlier guest post on The Exchange) and, whether we like it or not, forcing us to redesign training tools and equipping experiences.
In 2002, I purchased a new release by Michael Slaughter simply because of the title: Unlearning Church. Reading the title was a revelation in itself. Learning new or different methods without first changing the way we think is doomed to ineffectiveness. And thinking differently without retiring or radically revising standardized assumptions and approaches guarantees failure. A critical component of the learning process is to discern what must be unlearned so that new insights reveal critical implications and lead to fresh implementation.
My learning/unlearning journey continues. I’ve tried to think radically and simply. Which is why I’ve begun to think of evangelism as a four-letter word. More than one, actually. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 7:26 PM
For Jesus, the good news was not simply a handful of doctrines to be pedaled on a street corner. According to Matthew 16, the good news is about the kingdom of heaven coming to Earth, made understandable and accessible to and through every saint.
To Jesus it was the key to everything: “I will build my church and the gates of hell will not prevail. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 16:18-19).
What if we never had to worry about growing or building a church? What would change if we really lived out of the truth that God does the building and growing as we live in simple kingdom ways?
Well, that was our experiment. We had a small group of friends and we took a few months to study everything Jesus did and what he said about heaven. After we had an overview of kingdom reality, we decided to make it our reality. Although we made hundreds of observations, we noticed that almost everything had to do with three aspects of doable life. Read More
Photo Credit: Outreach Magazine
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 7:07 PM
How do you pastor people when they're not just the only believers in their family, they’re the first Christian in generations?
For the first time in American history we have a generation without Christian parents or grandparents.
Many of the people – especially the youth – who give their lives to Jesus in the church I pastor were never taught Bible stories, prayed at meals or bedtime, or heard grandma sing Jesus Loves Me.
If you live outside the USA, this may have been true of your culture for a long time. But for us, it’s new. Actually, if you live in the Bible Belt, it may not have happened in your community yet. But it is coming.
This makes pastoring today both a great opportunity and an interesting challenge. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 7:03 PM
A while back I wrote an article on ten things you should know about the life and ministry of Martin Luther. This was followed by two posts on the life of John Calvin as well as his theology. So it only seems fitting that we should also devote an article to the theology of Martin Luther. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 6:54 PM
While earning my master’s degree in the neuroscience of leadership, I learned some fascinating insights about the brain that can help us pastors lead, speak and live more effectively. To prep you, answer this question: How would people describe my sermons: hard to listen to or easy to listen to?
Take a moment, and stop reading and honestly answer that question for yourself. Whatever your answer, we can all improve our preaching. Below, I’ll share some interesting insights about the brain that can make your sermons easier to listen to.
I’ve also included a short checklist based on neuroscience insight that might help you improve.
But before that checklist, let me give you quick rundown of how the brains of our listeners process the sermons we give. Read More
How to Make Your Sermon Stick Past Sunday
Photo Credit: Outreach Magazine
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 6:49 PM
Baptist Catholicity: Retrieval for the Sake of Renewal
Seen in a broader context, this new call for Baptist catholicity is part of a deeper Protestant impulse to reclaim the foundations of historic Christian orthodoxy. Read More
The Oxford Movement went beyond reclaiming the foundations of historic Christian orthodoxy. While masquerading as a renewal movement, it would undermine the authority of the Bible and historic Anglican formularies in the Anglican Church. Where it exercised the most influence in the Anglican Church, it would replace the Biblical, reformed faith of authentic historic Anglicanism with a form of unreformed Catholicism which was not too different from post-Tridentian Roman Catholicism. This is one of the inherent dangers of Catholic Revivalism in its various forms. Under the guise of renewal it introduces or reintroduces error and superstition into the Church. The Ancient Evangelical Future Conference appears to be on a similar trajectory with its obsession with Medieval practices and spirituality.The 10 Most Common Things a Church Consultant Will Tell Your Church - Rainer on Leadership #328
A post by Chuck Lawless serves as the basis for today’s podcast. Dr. Lawless has been consulting with churches for nearly two decades and shared ten things he had learned from dozens of church consultations. Listen Now
Which Laws Apply?
To this day, the question of the role of the law of God in the Christian life provokes much debate and discussion. This is one of those points where we can learn much from our forebears, and John Calvin’s classic treatment of the law in his Institutes of the Christian Religion is particularly helpful. Calvin’s instruction comes down to us in what he calls the threefold use of the law with respect to its relevance to the new covenant. Read More
3 Vision Qualities Every Church Leader Possesses
Leading successfully is impossible without vision; you have to be leading somewhere. The journey has a destination point. Leaders lead because of a vision. They see the future before others, farther than others, and clearer than others. Read More
What Do You Do If You're on the Wrong Seat in the Bus
Last week, I posted, “10 Ways to Know if You’re on the Wrong Seat in the Bus.” Some of you graciously affirmed the post but then asked the follow up question, “What do I do now if I’m on the wrong seat?” Here’s my answer to that important question.... Read More
Preaching as Missions [Podcast]
This week on Preaching and Preachers, Zane Pratt joins me in a discussion on preaching as missions. Zane served as dean of the Billy Graham School from 2011-2013 before returning to the International Mission Board where he now serves as vice president for Global Training. He had served previously with the IMB from 1991-2011 as a church planter and regional leader in Central Asia. Listen Now
Why Don’t the Gospel Writers Tell the Same Story?
New Testament scholar and apologist Michael Licona’s new book argues that ancient literary devices are the answer—and that’s a good thing for Christians. Read More
Children’s Ministry in the Small and Medium Church [Podcast]
Sara Hughes from FBC the Village joins Pastor Talk host Marty Duren to discuss children’s ministry in small- and medium-sized churches. Listen Now
The ideal context of Christian growth is today. Read More
Teams in Mission: Are They Worth It? (Part Two)
TEAM missionaries research teamwork. Read More
Posted by Robin G. Jordan at 5:27 PM